Key theoretical frameworks
Living Labs are dynamic spaces where ideas and solutions can be co-created, tested, and iterated by collaborating stakeholders. The Living Lab offers methods for cultural heritage institutions, researchers, industry, communities, and government to co-design concrete solutions in real-life environments. Operating as 'innovation zones', Living Labs can bring together community knowledge with professional expertise for action-based projects.
Stakeholders is anyone potentially influenced directly or indirectly, positively or negatively, by the CHIs practices, and participatory activities. Stakeholders are defined independently of who actually participates in (or is invited to) a decision‐making process, for instance the society at large may experience consequences of solutions implemented within participatory activities. One distinguishes four stakeholder categories: government sector, private sector (for profit), civic sector (non‐profit), and citizens. Participant - is any actor taking part in the decision‐making process based on a position granted by the decision making process organiser. This can apply to certain interest groups or the general public, be restricted to specifically invited individuals, certain experts, state agencies, or apply to no one at all. Beneficiaries - are people who the Living Labs hope to serve, the intended recipients of the project's benefits and are expected to experience positive changes or improvements in their lives, circumstances, or environments as a result of the project's interventions. They are, firstly, the direct users who consume and use some of the goods and services derived, generally for a price. We also consider passive users, who are interested in the existence, legacy, and option value of a museum even if they do not consume it, and who express their willingness to pay through taxes or donations. Finally, we also consider as beneficiaries those groups that benefit from the non-computable externalities of a museum, in terms of knowledge increase, social value of heritage, or urban reputation value.Customers - are all direct users of any of the goods and services provided by a museum / Living Lab in a broad sense, usually for a fee. Therefore, we are dealing firstly with visitors to museums, who enjoy their cultural programme for personal, leisure, educational or research purposes. We also consider those who participate in other income-generating activities such as shopping in the museum boutique, or attending special events or educational programmes. We add users of new digital and multimedia supplies. We could also consider club users, such as the members of the museum, members of supporting societies, who have discounts or access advantages to exclusive events. Funding stakeholders - are people who will finance your Living Lab model.
Engagement is a set of heterogeneous and articulated processes, actions and organisational behaviours aimed at developing relations and mutuality in between two or more parties. Specifically, the purpose of community engagement is to develop and sustain a “working relationship between one or more organisations and one or more community groups, to help them both understand and act on the needs or issues that the community experience.” (Scottish National Occupational Standards for Community Engagement)
Need-based cooperation refers to the collaborative approach to value capture for generating inclusive and equitable benefits to all parties involved, by understanding the needs and motivations of actors in the value network. This is a key element in RECHARGE participatory business models.
Participatory approaches In the context of the RECHARGE project, "***participatory approaches**" refer to a set of methods, strategies, and principles that actively involve and engage relevant stakeholders in the planning, decision-making, implementation, and evaluation processes of the project. These approaches emphasise the importance of inclusivity, collaboration, and empowerment, aiming to ensure that all stakeholders have a voice, contribute their knowledge and perspectives, and have a sense of ownership and responsibility over the project.
Capacity-building “process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organisations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in a fast-changing world. An essential ingredient in capacity-building is transformation that is generated and sustained over time from within; transformation of this kind goes beyond performing tasks to changing mindsets and attitudes.” (source: https://www.un.org/en/academic-impact/capacity-building** )
Participatory business model
Participatory business model are experimental approaches to value-creation, value-capturing, and value-delivery that include a broad spectrum of stakeholders. They reflect the process that make businesses, organisations, and institutions’ operations desirable, feasible, and financially viable by leveraging their networks. Through engaged contribution, participatory business models devise sustainable solutions and organisations involved gain resilience. By applying participatory approaches to business model-making and development, PBMs present three main characteristics:
(i) Co-innovate to remain relevant and unique;
(ii) Develop solutions with various degrees of co-ownership;
(iii) Make innovations emerge from inclusive needs-based cooperation.
Value Capture measures the value delivery process’ results, which can be understood in the form of revenues (monetary), reach (the amount of people who can benefit from the offered products and services), and reputation (the improvement of the organisation’s image). This is the value generated for the Cultural Heritage Institution.
Co-ownership As part of the participatory practices of business model architecture, ***Co-ownerhip *refers to sharing ownership and benefits among partners. It requires trust and transparency of operations that are fundamental conditions to fuel the sustainability of cooperation, prioritising the common project over the interests of individual actors *UVA: It refers to a situation in which two or more partners share ownership and responsibility for a specific or general project in a museum, which implies involvement in the decision-making process, the funding of the initiative, as well as the benefits derived. Collaboration may occur between museums or with public entities, private companies, foundations, communities and other stakeholders. Activities can relate to museum assets (acquisitions of artworks, donations, bequests, transfers, restitutions) but also to wider initiatives such as temporary exhibitions, workspaces, digital supply, educational resources, etc. Transparency and trust are required as well as avoiding the principal-agent problem (lack of coordination between definition and execution of cultural policy).
Co-governance As part of the participatory practices of business model architecture, Co-governance refers to the involvement of participants in the decision making processes regarding the regulation and accountability of the designed business models. UVA: It refers to an approach to management and decision-making in which multiple stakeholders actively and collaboratively participate in the strategic direction of a museum. Rather than having a hierarchical and centralised leadership structure, co-governance involves the inclusion of diverse perspectives and voices in the decision-making process. These stakeholders may include local community representatives, cultural experts, donors, volunteers, researchers, and others, working together with the Museum board. This approach promotes collaboration and engagement of the community and other key stakeholders, which can lead to greater diversity in the museum's exhibits and programs, greater relevance to the local community, and greater long-term sustainability. Co-governance also promotes transparency and accountability, as decision-making is shared and subject to scrutiny from multiple actors. Nonetheless, it can also be resource-intensive and would require trust-building and clear decision structures.
Co-creation In the context of the RECHARGE project, "**co-creation**" refers to a collaborative and participatory process in which stakeholders actively contribute to the design, development, and implementation of the project's activities, solutions, or interventions. Co-creation involves engaging diverse stakeholders, including community members, organisations, experts, and other relevant parties, as equal partners in the creation and implementation of project outcomes.
By Hunt/ Prato
Collaboration refers to the cooperative and participatory process of working together among various stakeholders, including citizens, organisations, and government bodies, to collectively contribute, share ideas, and harness the power of collective intelligence, perspectives and expertise to address complex challenges and find innovative solutions. Collaboration within RECHARGE emphasises inclusivity, transparency, and active involvement of all participants. It fosters a culture of cooperation and joint effort, where individuals with diverse backgrounds, perspectives, and expertise come together to exchange knowledge, co-create proposals, deliberate, and reach consensus on important issues.
Financial sustainability The concept refers to the financial capacity to maintain or expand the activities linked to CHIs mission, taking into account the resources available and the expenses derived from the activity, seeking a proper balance between both, generating revenue and controlling expenses, while also keeping the quality of cultural supply. In the short term, financial sustainability implies the capacity to face unforeseen difficulties such as the loss of funds for a programme or fluctuations in private donations. From a long-term perspective, financial sustainability refers to the entity's capacity to face the activities derived from its mission, for which it will be necessary to plan an active fundraising and strategic allocation.
SustainabilityDefined by the UN as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” It implies careful use of renewable (and especially) non-renewable resources. Sustainability is often broken down into 3 interconnected domains of social sustainability, environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. To achieve sustainable development, the domains have to be balanced. See also: ICOM, Sustainable Development Goals, New European Bauhaus.
Growth In the context of RECHARGE, the growth desired for the CHI sector should be inclusive and green. Alternative approaches include post-growth and degrowth, which criticise and move beyond the concept of growth, “… aim[ing] to steer policy-making towards multiple economic, social and environmental goals rather than treating growth as an end in itself.” Many if not all of these approaches emphasise that society needs to operate within the boundaries of the planet and uphold social wellbeing and economic justice for everyone.
(Open) Innovation embodies a collaborative and open knowledge method that generates, refines, and applies inventive ideas, solutions, and processes. Its essence lies in shared value creation through collaborative efforts and the exchange of resources among diverse stakeholders. By transcending conventional limits and emphasising shared ownership and mutual advantages, open innovation drives the evolution of participatory business models, capacity-building, financial sustainability, and the overall growth and durability of cultural heritage institutions and associated domains.